It will start producing nuts in approximately 4 to 5 years, with an average yield of 7 pounds of hazelnuts per well-established plant. A newly planted hazel tree doesn't start producing nuts until the tree is established. A first hazelnut harvest can be expected between two and five years after planting the tree. Starter crops are usually small, but as the tree matures, the crops increase in size.
A ripe hazelnut tree can produce up to 25 pounds of nuts in a single year. Once a tree starts producing, you can expect a new hazelnut harvest every year, up to 50 years. The total yield from hazelnut production is 2,800 marketable pounds per acre. Commercial crop yields begin in the third year and full production is reached in the twelfth year.
An orchard can remain productive for about 40 to 50 years if it is well managed and kept disease-free. When hazelnuts change from green to brown and abscission begins, it's the best time to harvest. The crown system should be established in the form of a system of three branches: branches that depart from one place. In the spring of the first year after planting, the trees are trimmed to 30 cm.
On the ground to encourage the appearance of two or three stems that will form the future shape of the crown to form a system of three branches. In the second year after planting, the best secondary branch is selected, which follows the growth of shortened shoots to match the amount of growth. In the coming years, unnecessary branches will be eliminated. The goal is to provide sufficient sunlight throughout fruiting.
From the fifth year onwards, walnuts are considered to have reached their full productive potential. Hazelnuts from year 7 to 15 can give a yield per tree of 3 to 5 kg, and from year 15 to 25 5 to 10 kg per tree. Fertilizer doses depend on the results of the analysis of the hazelnut leaf and plantation soil. Plantation land is maintained in a state of barren fallow and herbicide application.
The destruction of the shoots is carried out by mechanical or chemical means. When you want to start commercial hazelnut cultivation, you should prepare a perfect hazelnut growing business plan. Under a moderate climate, hazel produces a satisfactory harvest with a minimum temperature of -10 °C. Hovel planted hazelnuts together with blueberries and evergreen trees on 6 acres of a 40-acre mountainous field.
It is recommended to plant the hazel tree at a distance of about 4 meters between rows and 3 meters between plants. In the appropriate storage space, hazelnut fruits should be stretched in thin layers and mixed occasionally so that they do not get an unpleasant smell. Their root systems could also prevent nutrients from leaking into groundwater when hazelnuts are planted in well protection areas and riverine buffer zones. A protected area with a reliable source of irrigation is essential in hot climates for growing hazelnuts.
Other important varieties of hazelnuts are Tonda Romana, Barcelona, Negret, Tonda Giffoni, Tonda Gentile delle Langhe, Pauetet and Tombul. If you shape a hazel tree, remove the lower branches and those that hang, keeping 3 to 5 stems at the top of the main “trunk” or “leader”. If a hazelnut tree is more than five years old and has not yet produced nuts, it is likely that it is missing its partner. Hazel trees grow the smallest of all nut trees and reach a height of about 3 to 5 meters.
Many people also choose to plant in what is called “double density”, planting twice as many hazelnuts in each row. The newly introduced disease in hazelnuts developed comparatively in early spring, and symptoms were observed on leaves, young shoots and clusters of immature nuts. Growing hazelnuts is easy and most people have discovered the nutritional and health benefits of this tree. Hybrid hazelnuts (native hazelnuts crossed with European hazelnuts) are at the heart of their work.