Hazelnuts thrive in well-drained, clay soil, but they grow in many types of soil as long as the soil is well-drained. Nut production is better when cross-pollination occurs with another variety of the same species (see tables 1) and/or with other plants of the same species cultivated with seeds. . By Dawn and Jeff Zarnowski Tasty and healthy hazelnuts are used in many food products desired by consumers and are chronically scarce.
Almost all of the hazelnuts consumed in North America come from Oregon or Turkey. However, hazel trees are native to the eastern half of North America, from Louisiana to Georgia in the south, to Manitoba and Quebec in the north. Native hazelnuts (Corylus americana) are resilient, disease-resistant and highly tolerant to a wide range of growing conditions, and yet there is a shortage of nuts. Indigenous nuts are usually small and are not as tasty as European hazelnuts (Corylus avellana), which have been selected for their quality for hundreds and thousands of years.
This is where the hybridization of the two species of hazelnuts over the past century has produced new varieties that have the best qualities of both. Hazelnut organizations have been formed to promote the cultivation of this native crop with better qualities. Another wonderful thing about hazelnuts is that you don't have to wait long before the tree produces nuts so you can eat them. Hazelnut trees start to bear fruit in just 4 years and produce large yields in years six or seven.
In addition, you can choose to grow it as a shrub or as a single-stemmed tree. A multi-stemmed bush will form if you do not cut or cut the shoots that grow near the base of the tree. In the form of a shrub, it will grow 8 to 12 feet tall. In the shape of a shrub, the hazelnut allows you to easily pick walnuts by hand and plant them without worries in the environment to control erosion or as a hedge.
If you choose to grow it as a single-stemmed tree, it will grow 14 to 16 feet tall and about the same width. Once the tree is large enough to shade the base, the shoots will not grow. The native hazel tree is adaptable and easy to grow; however, it took many generations of hybridization to generate native trees with large, tasty nuts. All hazelnut producing regions in the world are close to large bodies of water, which moderate the climate.
Around 70% of the world's hazelnut production comes from the Black Sea region in northern Turkey. Italy produces about 20% of world production. Spain, France, Georgia, Azerbaijan and the United States produce most of the rest. Global production and supply of hazelnuts, as well as the supply of other nuts, influence hazelnut prices in the United States.
Cooperative Extension Bulletin E368 Hazelnuts are sold in two different markets, the blanched grain market and the shell market, and the cultivars grown for each are different. The bleached grain market accounts for about 93% of the world's harvest, and the confectionery industry uses most of the grains. In the past, Eastern hazelnut blight disease has prevented hazelnut production in eastern North America. However, thanks to recent advances in reproduction, it is now possible to cultivate varieties of European hazelnut in places where previously they were not widely cultivated, such as New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York and other states in the Mid-Atlantic region.
Several species of wild hazelnuts, including C. American North American and C. Heterophiles from Asia have also been used in reproduction to further expand the production range. Therefore, many new cultivars are available, creating the need to evaluate them to determine their production characteristics under local conditions.
The purpose of this newsletter is to help growers choose hazelnut plants for their orchards in New Jersey. Provides information on global hazelnut production, hazelnut blossom biology, oriental algae blight disease, and propagation methods. It also describes the cultivars and provides a list of nurseries that offer plants for sale. Almost all European hazelnut cultivars are highly susceptible to a stem canker disease called Eastern Hazelnut Blight (EFB), which has largely prevented hazelnut production in the eastern United States.
UU. The disease is caused by the obligate fungus Anisogramma anomala, found in the wild American hazelnut, Corylus americana (Muehlbauer et al. The American tree rarely shows serious symptoms of the disease, acts as a source of inoculum and perpetually spreads fungal spores throughout its wide native range, which extends throughout much of the eastern United States. Anomaly and eventually dies because of the EFB.
Hazelnuts are monica (male and female flowers separated on the same plant) and pollinated by the wind. Incompatibility is sporophytic and is controlled by S alleles (also called incompatibility alleles) expressed in pollen and female flowers. The S alleles expressed in the pollen of one tree must be different from the S alleles expressed by the female flowers of the other tree to produce nuts. Therefore, at least two hazelnuts with different S alleles are required for nut production.
Pollen must also be released at the right time so that it overlaps with the flowering of female flowers. More information on the hazelnut bloom in New Jersey can be found at Capik and Molnar (201). See the OSU guide that details the pollination and development of walnuts and Germain (199) for more information. Male flowers, called amentae or staminal flowers, are the pollen-producing structures (Figure.
They begin to develop visibly in July, in preparation for the excretion of pollen early the following year. The wings break the lethargy during the winter and extend to more than double their size. They then release their pollen, which is spread through the wind. Pollen excretion generally occurs from February to March in New Jersey.
However, the specific dates of each year depend on the cultivar, the climate (especially the temperature) and the location. Plants can be classified as early, medium and late flowering; and the design of orchards must take this into account so that they successfully overlap between pollen excretion and female flowering. Female flowers (pistillate flowers) consist of a tuft of small dark pink, discrete and discrete stigmas that emerge from a vegetative bud (Figure). Stigmas emerge and are receptive to pollen during the winter (usually from late December to March).
The time of the appearance of female flowers, pollination and fertilization depend on the climate, location and annual cultivation. Like flowering plants, plants can generally be classified as early, medium and late blooming, and the design of orchards should take this into account. In New Jersey, most plants are protogynous, meaning that female flowers tend to emerge before the plants shed pollen on the same plant. Interestingly, in warmer climates, similar to those in the Mediterranean (p.
e.g.,. Pistylated hazelnut flowers are also botanically unique, as they remain receptive to pollen for several weeks after their appearance and have been found to be highly resistant to cold (most survive below -20°F). It is important to note that adequate and compatible pollination is a prerequisite for a good hazelnut harvest. In some years, this can be a challenge in New Jersey due to rapid fluctuations in winter temperature, where prolonged periods of heat can cause floods to break the lethargy too soon and become susceptible to frost damage during the subsequent cold.
The damage is aggravated by drying out during high winds. Female flowers may also emerge early, but they are resistant to cold and remain receptive for several weeks waiting for pollen and therefore present fewer challenges. Pollination also requires an appropriate time (phenology) of flowering, in which pollinating cultivars must shed pollen when the female flowers of the nut-producing cultivar are receptive (and not before). Therefore, it is strongly recommended to use a diverse mix of different compatible hazelnut plants in the orchard, including those that give off early, medium and late pollen, with compatible S alleles, as a buffer to minimize pollination problems and the timing of flowering.
It is also recommended to plant cold-resistant hybrid hazelnut seedlings in border rows, as described in more detail below, to help diversify the S alleles present and extend the pollen release period to ensure adequate pollination of clonal cultivars each year. Hazelnuts are a new crop for most producers in New Jersey and the Mid-Atlantic region. A variety of hazelnut plants are available, including seed-propagated plants and those produced through asexual (clonal) propagation. Before buying hazelnut plants and investing in establishing a hazelnut orchard, it is essential to understand the plant material being considered.
This includes knowledge of species, cultivars, hybrids and their methods of propagation. The art and science of multiplying plants while preserving their unique properties. Hazelnuts derived from seed germination. In self-incompatible plants, such as hazelnuts (which do not self-pollinate, are very heterozygous), this causes significant variation in the resulting offspring.
Nurseries that sell hazelnut “seedlings” usually germinate and grow open-pollinated seeds from a select group of plants for sale (for example, a local population of C. Americana (for use on wildlife plantations or in a group of interpollinating cultivars). Seed-grown hazelnuts are generally too variable to support commercial nut production, lacking consistent yields, grain quality, and disease resistance, but can be used as pollinators, rootstocks, patio trees and in plantations for wildlife and conservation, etc. Please note that hazelnut breeding programs are also based on seed propagation for the development of new cultivars.
However, in breeding programs, large populations of seedlings are cultivated from controlled crosses of known parents. Elite individuals are then identified through a rigorous multi-year selection process and are propagated by cloning for further testing and, eventually, their release. The wild American hazelnut, native to the eastern United States. And Southern Canada is a small shrub that usually grows along forest edges, clearings and roadsides in a variety of climates and soils.
It is characterized by having much smaller nuts (grains of 0.4 to 0.6 grams) kept in thick, fleshy shells (figure), with thicker shells (~ 35% grain) than European hazelnuts. Although it has edible grains, its very bushy growth habit and its small nuts make it unsuitable for standard commercial nut production. However, in general, plants are resistant to EFB and their crops are more resistant to cold than European hazelnuts, making them good garden and conservation plants and a valuable breeding companion of the European hazelnut to develop interspecific hybrids with a wider adaptation (see the next section). American cultivars have been selected, although some, such as “Rush” from Pennsylvania and “Winkler” from Iowa, were once available in nurseries.
Americans have an attractive fall color red, orange, pink and yellow with colorful shells that add to their landscape appeal. Plants can be adapted to USDA hardiness zones 3 to 8, depending on the seed source. Interspecific hybrids, called “hybrid hazelnuts”, in North America are generally derived from crosses between C. Hazelnut, although it is possible to make other combinations of species.
In general, the objective is to combine the quality of walnuts and the yields of European hazelnuts with the adaptation and resistance to diseases of wild species. Breeding efforts in the early 20th century led to the development of F1 hybrids of C. The hazelnut, some of which are still available today, including the NY 616 clones sold under the name “Slate” and the NY 398 that are sold under the name “Gene” (or “Geneva”) (Molnar, 201). Although New York selections reproduce by cloning, most of the hybrid hazelnuts currently available and planted by producers in recent years come from germinated seeds.
They are usually derived from the open crossing of several hybrid plants over several generations. Many Upper Midwest fountain plants originate from C. This work was most recently continued by Phil Rutter and others in Minnesota (Weschcke, 1954; Rutter, 1987; Molnar, 201). These seed-propagated hybrids are highly variable in many traits, which tend to result in low average yields per acre along with the production of small, thick-skinned nuts.
Fortunately, there are improved individuals in these populations. Several programs, including the Hybrid Hazelnut Consortium, the Upper Midwest Hazelnut Development Initiative and some private nurseries (see Table), are developing, identifying and propagating improved clones of cold-resistant hybrid hazelnuts. These clonal hybrids have significant potential for commercial hazelnut production in northern regions. For example, almost all current garden plantations in China are based on cold-resistant clonal cultivars of C.
Of hazel origin, called Ping'ou hybrids (note that they also harvest wild C). These plants are grown in a region that is too cold for pure European hazelnut. When considering the moderate climate of New Jersey and the Mid-Atlantic region, hybrid hazelnuts generally have better resistance to growth and later bloom dates than European species selections, but their smaller kernels and thicker shells are inferior. Here they are suggested as supplemental pollinators for European cultivars to diversify S alleles and provide constant pollen production despite annual climate fluctuations.
The use of clonal hybrid plant material should also be considered for major crops in regions too cold for European hazelnuts. In the world's traditional hazelnut growing regions, particularly in Turkey, Italy and Spain, production still depends on historic (old) cultivars that were selected from local wild vegetation. The main Turkish cultivars are Tombul, Palaz and Foşa. The main Italian cultivars are Tonda Gentile delle Langhe, Tonda Romana, Tonda di Giffoni, Mortarella and San Giovanni.
Negret is the main crop in Spain. The origins of these important cultivars are largely unknown (they were lost with ancient times), but their dominance was consolidated when the confectionery industry established quality standards for grain processing in the middle and late twentieth century. Modern reproduction programs began in Italy, France and the U.S. In the 1960s, with a focus on improving core quality and performance.
Additional programs were also initiated in Romania, Turkey and China. Where playback has continued (and expanded), programs in much of the rest of the world have been interrupted or significantly reduced in scale. Most of the production outside the U.S. Keep in mind that the EFB remains confined to North America, allowing the rest of the world to continue using traditional cultivars, almost all of which are highly susceptible to the disease.
In the past, the variety “Barcelona”, susceptible to EFB, a variety from Spain that was cultivated for the market with a shell, was the variety most planted in the Willamette Valley, in Oregon. Nowadays, its use has been supplanted by new EFB-resistant cultivars from Oregon State University (Table). The following list includes new cultivars developed at Rutgers University in collaboration with Oregon State University. They were selected for their high yield and excellent nut quality in New Jersey, combined with resistance or very high levels of tolerance to EFB.
Also included in the list are three additional cultivars available in nurseries that, through tests at Rutgers University, were identified as compatible and resistant pollinators to EFB that also produce good to very good nuts. The data presented comes from trees grown at Rutgers University. Keep in mind that climate and soil conditions, disease pressure, soil fertility, and other aspects of orchard management influence traits such as grain quality, overall yield, and tree growth. In addition to the suggested clonal pollinators, it is recommended to plant a diverse collection of hybrid hazelnut seedlings in border rows and within plots of more than one acre to produce a constant pollen cloud for clonal cultivars (which may have more frost-sensitive growths).
With a space of 18 to 20 feet between rows, it is recommended that every sixth row be a row of pollinating seedlings. A cross between Oregon State University's OSU 539,031 x OSU 616.018 selections, it has a high yield with medium-sized round grains that blanch well after roasting, making it very suitable for the grain market (Figure. Most grains have a diameter of 12 to 14 mm, with an average weight of 1.14 grams and 48% of grain per weight. It has the S 3 and 22 alleles, with S3 expressed in pollen, and blooms early to mid-season in New Jersey.
Nuts usually fall from the first to the second week of September. This is a cross of the “Sacajawea” variety with the OSU 616.055 selection from Oregon State University. Most grains have a diameter of 12 to 14 mm, with an average weight of 1.19 grams and 52% of grains per weight. It has the S 1 and 12 alleles, both expressed in pollen, and blooms early in the season in New Jersey.
This is a cross of the OSU 665.123 x “Ratoli” variety selected by Oregon State University. It is a high-yielding tree with small to medium-sized round kernels that are properly blanched after roasting, making it very suitable for the grain market (Figure 1). Most grains have a diameter of 12 to 13 mm, with an average weight of 1.14 grams and 55% grain by weight. It has remarkably thin shells and tends to produce good yields even on young trees.
She carries an EFB resistance gene from the Spanish grape “Ratoli” and has been shown to have no EFB in New Jersey. An intersection of NY 616 (C). The OSU 226,118 hazelnut is a high-yielding hybrid hazelnut with small nuts and adequate blanching after roasting them, making it suitable for the grain market (Figure 1). Most grains have a diameter of 9 to 11 mm, an average weight of 0.9 grams and 44% of grain by weight.
In New Jersey (grains are reported to weigh 1.1 grams in Oregon). It carries a C EFB resistance gene. It has the S 8 and 23 alleles, with the S8 expressed in pollen, and blooms early to mid-season in New Jersey, making it a valuable pollinator for other Rutgers cultivars. Compatible in both directions with “Monmouth” (S1S1), “Raritan” (S3S2), “Somerset” (S3S), “Hunterdon” (S1S), “Slate” (NY61) (S1S2), “Gene” (NY39) (S15S2) and “Grand Traverse (S11S2).
Nuts usually fall from the second to the third week of September. It is susceptible to bud mites in Oregon, but this has not been seen in New Jersey. Listed below are several nurseries that sell hazelnuts. This list is not all-inclusive and does not imply Rutgers University's endorsement of these day care centers.
Nurseries not included in this list are not inferior. Grimo nut nursery (Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada). The inventory includes clonal varieties and hybrid selections from the New York Agricultural Experiment Station, as well as selections from their own breeding programs (see Table). An extensive list of nurseries that sell hazelnuts for producers in the Upper Midwest.
The inventory includes hybrid hazelnut seedlings resistant to cold and EFB from selected hybrid parents. Micropropagation laboratory whose inventory includes clonal C. Hazelnut cultivars, most of which come from the Oregon State University breeding program. Oregon Walnut Producers Society, Washington and British Columbia.
The website includes a list of nurseries (with contact information) that propagate hazelnut cultivars, most of which are found in Oregon. The mention or display of a trademark, a patented product or a company in the text or in the figures does not constitute an approval by Rutgers Cooperative Extension and does not imply approval that excludes other suitable products or firms. New Jersey Rutgers Agricultural Experiment Station, State University of New Jersey 88 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525.Continue to grow the seedlings in pots throughout the summer, keep them in partial shade, and transplant them to the ground in the fall once the seedlings reach eight to 10 inches tall. Keep in mind that growing conditions vary by region, and an agriculture specialist in Burgas (Bulgaria) might be a better option for your consultation.
Although the cultivars protected by “Gasaway” are adapted to the climate of New Jersey and generally produce excellent quality nuts, due to the severity of the disease and the risk of tree death, commercial planting in the Mid-Atlantic region is not recommended. Continue to remove other new branches each year in late winter or spring for the next few seasons until the leading branch has grown to a reasonable height. Charred fragments of hazelnut shells were found at many Stone Age sites (8000—2700 BC). C.) in what is now Sweden, Denmark and Germany.
Between the 7500 and the 5500 a. C., the European hazelnut was one of the first shrub-shaped trees to extend north after the last glacial period in Northern Europe. On the other hand, cultivars cultivated in Turkey, where orchards are located on very steep slopes, hold the nuts in long shells that come together to facilitate manual harvesting of trees. Chemical fungicide programs have been developed for the susceptible “Barcelona” crop in Oregon (see the Pacific Northwest disease management manual).
Therefore, commercial hazelnut production in North America is limited to areas with moderate climates, such as Oregon's Willamette Valley and the western regions of Washington and British Columbia. .